Attacking the XNU Kernel For Fun And Profit – Part 1

This blog post is part of a series of posts in which I will discuss several techniques to own XNU, the kernel used by Apple’s OS X and iOS. My focus will be on heap-based attacks, such as heap overflows, double frees, use-after-frees and zone confusion.

This post will be describing the zalloc() allocator, and how kalloc() (which is used for a lot of stuff including the IOKit C++ “new” operator) uses it. I’ll assume a page is 4096 bytes in your machine.

You can use zinit() to create a zone, which is essentially a “sub-heap”, completely independent of other heaps. A zone will always allocate a fixed-size memory area, and it does so by allocating a page and dividing by N bytes. For example, the kalloc.512 zone, which allocates 512 byte allocations, will take a 4096 byte page and divide it up in 8 free chunks. Each chunk references the previous chunk in a linked list, and every time you call zalloc() on it, the last chunk will be returned and the zone will move up an item in the linked list. zfree() will pop the chunk back into the list, and the zone will return it in the next zalloc(), unless another chunk is freed first. You can use “sudo zprint” to see all zones that have been zinit()ed, along with useful infos on allocations.

kalloc resembles much more libc’s malloc() in it’s interface, requiring only your allocation’s size as argument, but unlike libc’s free(), kfree (kalloc’s free equivalent) requires both the pointer to the allocation AND the allocation size, since neither zalloc nor kalloc store any metadata in allocated chunks, so kfree can not know what zone your chunk has to be popped back in.

So, to recap, zalloc uses multiple heaps, each heap is called zone, each zone always allocates same-sized allocs, kalloc registers up various zones for 16, 32, 64, 128, etc. allocations and will take any reasonable size and return an allocation in the zone with smallest enough size to satisfy the allocation (kalloc(15) returns a 16 byte chunk, kalloc(17) returns a 32 byte chunk). Another important thing to remember is that each zone has a linked list that acts as a LIFO, and when no more free chunks are available in a zone, a new page is allocated, split up in chunks and each chunk is added to the free list (which is held inline).

Hopefully this gives you a simple explanation on how the XNU kernel handles the heap. I skipped a lot of stuff and tried to keep this as simple as possible, but if you have any question regarding this feel free to contact me on Twitter, on IRC if you see me idling around some channel you’re in, via email at [email protected] or on XMPP (w/ OTR)[email protected]

P.S. Free chunk metadata used to be an easy write-what-where in case of heap overflows, but nowadays the unlink operation is hardened, plus I don’t like free chunk meta data attacks anyway, so I won’t cover free chunk metadata attacks at all.

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    Essel Group can be the official distributor of lotteries organised by some state governments and operates online lotteries in Maharashtra, Sikkim and some other states by means of its brand ‘Playwin’. In October 2013, The Indian Poker Affiliation, in petitions filed before the Karnataka Excessive Court docket, complained that the police had been harassing poker gamers by submitting cases towards them and raiding poker clubs. The IPC is ready to host its next competition on January 21-25 in the Deltin Royale Poker Room aboard the Casino Deltin Royale in Goa. Legal playing in India is limited to taking part in the lottery, in most states, as as soon as again individual states do have the ability to make their very own laws.

    Charles has been an avid poker participant for plenty of years, each stay and online. In consequence, it is very tough to seek out out precisely what’s legal and what’s not in India. This is the reason many Indians find it difficult to deposit at sites from their bank or by utilizing a credit card. Necessary steps are taken to make sure that the positioning remains free from any fraudulent actions or some other manipulation methods. The factor was, avid gamers from India have been at all times current on worldwide web sites, if not in great numbers. Enjoying poker on PokerBaazi is legally permissible in India and we comply with Indian legal tips like Indian Penal Code, 1860, Code of Felony Process, 1973, Indian Information Know-how Act, 2000, the Public Taking part in Act, 1867, khelo365 poker india Foreign Exchange Administration Act (FEMA) 1999, and many others.

    We take into account that poker is relatively new in India and therefore provide our players to get accustomed to the positioning and poker recreation. There is no such thing as a one Indian palate: bread and jam, idlis, parathas, eggs, our mornings look as numerous as our culture. Ankit, who has now been playing for the final 4 years repeatedly, brings dwelling a minimum of 2 lakh a month by his prowess at the poker tables. The Mercury-branded poker web site, the primary to launch on the community, will soon be joined by a Mojo-branded website, with Baadshah Gaming, a subsidiary of land-based mostly operator Satisfaction Group, also preparing to launch its personal pores and skin.

    A superb begin for web and on-line gambling in New Jersey has already been reported. Not too long ago, The All India Gaming Federation (AIGF) has pressed the Kerala Government to legalize poker sport in the state and the federal government is considering notifying poker as a skill sport. With the return of IPC in 2015, the poker scene completely modified, what an initiative it was!!The IPC series quickly bought momentum and noticed gamers throughout all metros and even Tier II Cities widely collaborating in the event. On-line card video games stakeholders should not be misguided by the misleading and incorrect media experiences about the order of the Supreme Courtroom.

    Despite the fact that Indian rummy golf equipment are on the defensive in this case, this case most probably may have a ripple impact on how the country legally perceives poker as effectively. Courts in India haven’t yet obtained a chance to check these arguments, although two terse Excessive Court docket orders have indicated that the end result of poker-associated litigation is also constructive. Rahul, who declined to be identified by his full title, is amongst greater than 50,000 people who play on homegrown on-line poker startups corresponding to Adda52, Poker-Baazi and Spartan Poker every month. The courts have held that Poker cannot be accepted as a recreation of skill; however it was stated that will probably be legal to play poker throughout the states which do not maintain it as unlawful.

    And as gamers talk about tells” and tics,” they seem satisfied that poker is about understanding both technique and temperament. Launched in Oct 2013, the Amator is the result of detailed authorized study by Vipin Chaudhary, a passionate poker participant and lawyer by profession. The world’s first website to supply the whole array of Poker Sport features akin to Ring Game, Sit n Go, Multi Desk Tournaments, Foyer Filters etc on the mobile, Leisureplay is proud of the technology milestones it has achieved in a brief span of time and is constantly being recognized by business veterans for the quality of its products.

    Phillip Hellmuth, arguably the most successful poker player, has won the WSOP bracelet 14 times. The India Poker Championship (IPC) for instance, has been working since 2010 and is by far essentially the most prestigious Poker series in the land drawing in competitors from all around the nation. The Central Authorities and Reserve Financial establishment of India (RBI) have the powers to subject financial institution notes and coins respectively. We offer our free service that recommends the very best of one of the best Indian on-line poker websites. Players who wish to extend their accomodation for PLO occasion, can achieve this with further cost of two,500 per night time/particular person.

    Like traditional poker video games, check out your hand and determine which, if any, of your 5 playing cards you wish to hold. Incomes the tag of being the first Legal Poker On-line is no mean feat in such a conservative nation like ours that has a murky view towards card video games. However gaming lovers or people who love gambling on-line have complete information about online poker and there are web sites who are providing great deals and bonuses to draw new gamers to try their luck over the game of on-line poker. Simply going to a casino in Sikkim and taking part in poker you possibly can see this isn’t true, and we like to gamble!

    Is the world’s largest and most trusted online poker information, providing the most effective online poker bonus deals assured, over $1m in exclusive freerolls every year and the most free poker content material accessible on the Web. But everybody plays poker and, of late, it has arguably grow to be an underground nationwide obsession. The State has through Sikkim On-line Gaming (Regulation) Guidelines, 2009, made video games like Roulette, Black Jack, Pontoon, Punto Banco, Bingo, On line casino Brag, Poker, Poker Cube, Baccarat, Chemin-de-for, Backgammon, Keno, and Tremendous Pan 9 authorized. Earlier even entry to many web sites the place all types of card video games and poker games were banned and only allowed in few stated however this is not the scenario now.

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